Quantum fluids are those many-particle systems in whose behaviour the effects of both the quantum mechanics and quantum statistics are important, which occurs at cold temperatures. The most important two examples are superfluids, such as liquid Helium, and superconductors. This lecture course will begin with the phenomenon of Bose condensation in an ideal Bose gas with interactions; explore why this is not a true superfluid, and go on to look at the role of interactions. It then proceeds to explore what is different when the particles are charged, and finally look at the BCS theory of superconductivity where one begins with fermions rather than bosons.
Derek Lee is a Senior Lecturer at Imperial College London. He works on correlated quantum liquids, such as liquid helium and excitonic condensates, and also on topological states of matter.
A quantitative understanding of bonding in condensed matter systems demands a solution of the many electron problem. This course will show how the many electron problem can be mapped onto single electron problems in an approximate way (Hartree and Hartree Fock approximations) and a formally exact way (density functional theory and the Kohn Sham equations). Further, some of the methodology used to solve the Kohn Sham equations in complex systems will be described. In the last part of the lectures, some examples will be analysed, and we will critically evaluate the strength and weaknesses of DFT and other ab-initio electronic structure methods.
Niels is a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Manchester. His research interests are in the theory of and computational approaches to Nuclear Physics, as well as the adjacent areas of Particle and Condensed Matter Physics. As well as this research, he contributes to Open Educational Resources and e-learning resources using simulations in Java and Mathematica.
Statistical Mechanics aims to provide a macroscopic description of a physical system starting from knowledge of its microscopic properties. The methodology and techniques are widely used throughout condensed matter physics and are also today being applied to understand the dynamics of model ecologies, economies and societies. In these lectures, we will revisit the equilibrium properties of matter – such as phase transitions and universality – from the perspective of dynamics (as opposed to statics, as is typically done in undergraduate courses). Then we will examine successively further-from-equilibrium systems, ending with a discussion of fluctuations in driven systems, a subject currently generating considerable excitement in this field.
Richard Blythe is a Professor of Complex Systems at the University of Edinburgh. Since his PhD days, he has been researching models and theories for nonequilibrium dynamical systems. Applications of these models include transport in biological systems, traffic flow, population dynamics and language change.
This course deals mainly with the influence of interactions on the electrons in materials. We begin with a review of second quantisation and the Fermi gas theory of metals, and then progress to Landau’s Fermi liquid theory and the notion of quasiparticles. The effect of impurities on the Fermi liquid (including the Kondo effect) is discussed, and we then move on to consider how the Fermi liquid gives way to other phases as the interactions are increased, concentrating on the Stoner instability and the Mott insulator. We analyse the magnetism in the Mott insulating phase, developing the concept of spin waves. Finally, we make a survey of some experimental data on strongly correlated crystalline solids, giving basic interpretations in terms of the concepts developed in the course.
Chris Hooley is a theoretical condensed matter physicist at the University of St Andrews, and is interested in many aspects of the quantum many-body problem.